# Bachelor in Computer Application (BCA 2ND Semester)effective from 2016-17 Academic Sesion

## COURSES OF STUDIES FOR BCA 2ND SEMESTER PROGRAM (Effective from 2016-17 SESSION)

PAPER |
COURSE OPTED |
COURSE NAME |
CREDITS |
---|---|---|---|

1 | Ability Enhancement Course-II | Environmental Science | 2 |

2 | Core Course-III | Programming Using C++ | 4 |

3 | Core Course-III Practical | C++ LAB | 2 |

4 | Core Course-IV | Data Structure | 2 |

5 | Core Course-IV Practical | Data Structure Lab | 4 |

6 | Generic Ellective-ii | Numerical Techniques | 2 |

7 | Generic Ellective-ii Practical | Numerical Techniques Lab | 4 |

**ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE****UNIT-I**

THE ENVIRONMENT: The Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, Lithosphere, Biosphere, Ecology, Ecosystem, Biogeochemical Cycle (Carbon Cycle, Nitrogen Cycle)

**UNIT-II**

ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION: Air Pollution, Water Pollution, Soil Pollution, Noise Pollution, Thermal Pollution, Radiation Pollution, Natural Disasters and their Management.

**UNIT-III**

POPULATION ECOLOGY: Individuals, Species, Pollution, Community, Control Methods of Population, Urbanization and its effects on Society, Communicable Diseases and its Transmission, Non-Communicable Diseases.

**UNIT-IV**

ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENTS IN INDIA: Grass-root Environmental Movements in India, Role of Women, Environmental Movements in Odisha, State Pollution Control Board, Central Pollution Control Board.

**UNIT-V**

NATURAL RESOURCES: Conservation of Natural Resources, Management and Conservation of Wildlife, Soil Erosion and Conservation, Environmental Laws; Water Act: 1974, Air Act: 1981, The Wildlife (Protection) Act: 1972, Environmental Protection: 1986.

**Recommended Books:**

1. Kumarasamy, K., A. Alagappa Moses and M. Vasanthy, 2004. Environmental Studies, Bharathidsan University pub, 1, Trichy

2. Rajamannar, 2004, Environemntal Studies, EVR College pub, Trichy

3. Kalavathy, S. (ed.) 2004, Environmental Studies, Bishop Heber College pub., Trichy

*PROGRAMMING USING C++***UNIT-I**

Principles of Object-Oriented Programming: Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) Paradigm, Basic Concepts of OOP, Benefits of OOP, Object Oriented Languages, Applications of OOP. Beginning with C++: Applications of C++, C++ statements, Example with Class, Structure of C++ Program, Creating the Source File, Compiling and Linking. Tokens, Expressions and Control Structures: Tokens, Keywords, Identifiers & Constants, Basic Data Types, User-Defined Data Types, Derived Data Types, Symbolic Constants, Type Compatibility, Declaration of Variables, Dynamic Initialization of Variables, Reference Variables, Operators in C++, Scope Resolution Operator, Member Deferencing Operators, Memory Management Operators, Manipulators, Type Cast Operators, Expressions and their Types, Special Assignment Expressions, Implicit Conversions, Operator Overloading, Operator Precedence, Control Structures.

**UNIT-II**

Functions in C++: The Main Function, Function Prototyping, Call By Reference, Return by Reference, Inline Functions, Default Arguments, Const. Arguments, Function Overloading, Friend & Virtual Functions, Math. Library Functions. Classes and Objects: Specifying a Class, Defining Member Functions, Making an outside Function Inline, Nested Member Functions, Private Member Functions, Arrays within a Class, Memory Allocation for Objects, Static Data Members, Static Member Functions, Arrays of Objects, Objects as Function Arguments, Friendly Functions, Returning Objects, Cons. Member Functions, Pointer to Members, Local Classes.

**UNIT-III**

Constructors & Destructors: Constructors, Parameterized Constructors, Multiple Constructors in a Class, Constructors with Default Arguments, Dynamic Initialization of Objects, Copy Constructor, Dynamic Constructors, Constructing Two-Dimensional Arrays, Const. Objects, Destructors. Operator Overloading and Type Conversions: Defining Operator Overloading, Overloading Unary Operators, Overloading Binary Operators, Overloading Binary Operators using Friends, Manipulation of Strings using Operators, Rules for Overloading Operators, Type Conversions.

**UNIT-IV**

Inheritance: Defining Derived Classes, Single Inheritance, Making a Private Member Inheritance, Multilevel Inheritance, Multiple Inheritance, Hierarchical Inheritance, Hybrid Inheritance, Virtual Base Classes, Abstract Classes, Constructors in Derived Classes, Member Classes, Nesting of Classes. Pointers, Virtual Functions and Polymorphism: Pointers, Pointers to Objects, this Pointer, Pointers to Derived Classes, Virtual Functions, Pure Virtual Functions.

**UNIT-V**

Managing Console I/O Operations: C++ Streams, C++ Stream Classes, Unformatted I/O Operations, Formatted Console I/O Operations, Managing Output with Manipulators. Files: Classes for File Stream Operations, Opening and Closing a File, Detecting end- of-file, File Modes, File Pointers and their Manipulations, Sequential Input and Output Operations, Updating a File: Random Access, Error Handling During File Operations, Command-line Arguments.

**Recommended Books:**

1. E. Balgurusamy, Object Oriented Programming with C++, 4/e (TMH).

2. Paul Deitel, Harvey Deitel, "C++: How to Program",9/e. Prentice Hall.

3. J. Farrell, “Object-Oriented Programming, Cengage Learning

4. Bjarne Stroustroup, "Programming -- Principles and Practice using C++", 2/e, Addison-Wesley 2014

__DATA STRUCTURE__**UNIT-I**

Introduction and Overview: Definitions, Concept of Data Structures, Overview of Data Structures, Implementation of Data Structures. Arrays: Terminology, One-Dimensional Array, Multi-Dimensional Arrays, Pointer Arrays.

**UNIT-II**

Linked Lists: Single Linked List, Circular Linked List, Double Linked List, Circular Double Linked List, Application of Linked Lists, Memory Representation, Boundary Tag System, De-allocation Strategy, Buddy System, Compaction.

**UNIT-III**

Stacks: Definition, Representation of Stack (Array, Linked List), Operations on Stacks, Applications of Stack (Evaluation of Arithmetic Expressions, Code Generation, Implementation of Recursion, Factorial Calculation, Quick Sort, Tower of Hanoi, Activation Record Management).

**UNIT-IV**

Queues: Definition, Representation of Queues (Array, Linked List), Circular Queue, Deque, Priority Queue, Application of Queues (Simulation, CPU Scheduling in Multiprogramming Environment, Round Robin Algorithm).

**UNIT-V**

Tree: Binary Trees, Properties of Binary Tree, Linear Representation of Binary a Binary Tree, Linked Representation of a Binary Tree, Physical Implementation of Binary Tree in Memory, Operations on Binary Tree (Insertion, Deletion, Traversal, Merging of two Binary Trees), Types of Binary Trees (Expression Tree, Binary Search Tree, Heap Tree, Threaded Binary Trees, Height Balanced Binary Tree, Weighted Binary Tree, Decision Trees).

**Recommended Books:**

1. D. Samanta, “Classic Data Structures”:, 2/e (PHI).

2. D.S Malik, “Data Structure using C++”, 2/e, Cengage Learning, 2010

3. Adam Drozdek, "Data Structures and algorithm in C++", 3/e, Cengage Learning, 2012.

4. Robert L. Kruse, "Data Structures and Program Design in C++", Pearson.

__NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES__**UNIT-I**

Introduction: Numbers and their accuracy, Chopping and Rounding off, Errors: Absolute and Relative errors, Floating point representations of numbers, Loss of significance. Solution of Algebraic and Transcendental Equations: Bisection Method, Newton- Raphson Method, Secant Method, Method of false position, Rate of convergence and comparison of iterative methods.

**UNIT-II**

Interpolation and Numerical Differentiation: Polynomial Interpolation, Interpolating polynomial: Lagrange form, Newton form, Nested form, Divided difference Interpolation, Inverse Interpolation, Errors in polynomial Interpolation. First derivative and second derivative via Taylor Series, Richardson Extrapolation.

**UNIT-III**

Numerical Integration: Trapezoidal Rule, Composite Trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s 1/3 rule, Simpson’s 3/8 rule, Gaussian Quadrature formulae (1-point, 2-point, 3-point)

**UNIT-IV**

Solution of System of Linear Equations: Gaussian Elimination method and Pivoting, LU factorization method, ill Conditioning, Iterative Methods: Jacobi iterative method, Gauss Seidel iterative method. Eigen Values and Eigen Vectors: Eigen value properties, Computation Eigen values by Power method.

.

**UNIT-V**

Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations: Taylor Series method, Runge-Kutta method of order 2 and order 4, Predictor-Corrector method: Adam’s-Bashforth-Moultan method. Smoothing of Data and the Method of Least Squares: Linear and non-linear least square method.

**Recommended Books:**

1. E. Ward Cheney and David R. Kincaid ,“Numerical Methods and Applications”CENGAGE Learning India Private Ltd., New Delhi.

2. S.R.K. Iyengar, R.K. Jain, & M.K. Jain, ”Numerical Methods for Scientific & Engineering Computation”, 6/e, New Age Int. Pub.

3. S.S. Sastry, “ Introductory Methods of Numerical Analysis”, 5/e, EEE

4. Steven C. Chapra, “Applied Numerical Methods with MATLAB”, 2/e, McGraw-Hill.

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